Hammertoe is a contracture (bending) deformity of one or both joints of the second, third, fourth or fifth (little) toes. This abnormal bending can put pressure on the toe when wearing shoes, causing problems to develop. Hammertoes usually start out as mild deformities and get progressively worse over time. In the earlier stages, hammertoes are flexible and the symptoms can often be managed with noninvasive measures. But if left untreated, hammertoes can become more rigid and will not respond to nonsurgical treatment.
Because of the progressive nature of hammertoes, they should receive early attention. Hammertoes never get better without some kind of intervention.
The most common cause of hammertoe is muscle/tendon imbalance. This imbalance, which leads to a bending of the toe, results from mechanical (structural) or neurological changes in the foot that occur over time in some people.
Hammertoes may be aggravated by shoes that do not fit properly. A hammertoe may result if a toe is too long and is forced into a cramped position when a tight shoe is worn. Occasionally, hammertoe is the result of an earlier trauma to the toe. In some people, hammertoes are inherited.
Common symptoms of hammertoes include:
Pain or irritation of the affected toe when wearing shoes.
Corns and calluses (a buildup of skin) on the toe, between two toes or on the ball of the foot. Corns are caused by constant friction against the shoe. They may be soft or hard, depending on their location.
Inflammation, redness or a burning sensation
Contracture of the toe
In more severe cases of hammertoe, open sores may form.
Although hammertoes are readily apparent, to arrive at a diagnosis, Dr. Levine will obtain a thorough history of your symptoms and examine your foot. During the physical examination, he may attempt to reproduce your symptoms by manipulating your foot and will study the contractures of the toes. In addition, Dr. Levine may take x-rays to determine the degree of the deformities and assess any changes that may have occurred.
Hammertoes are progressive—they do not go away by themselves and usually, they will get worse over time. However, not all cases are alike—some hammertoes progress more rapidly than others. Once Dr. Levine has evaluated your hammertoes, he will develop a treatment plan based on your needs. There is a variety of treatment options for hammertoes. The treatment Dr. Levine selects will depend on the severity of your hammertoe and other factors.
A number of nonsurgical measures can be undertaken. In some cases, usually when the hammertoe has become more rigid and painful or when an open sore has developed, surgery is needed. In selecting the procedure or combination of procedures for your specific case, Dr. Levine will take into consideration the extent of your deformity, the number of toes involved, your age, your activity level, and other factors. The length of the recovery period will vary depending on the procedure or procedures performed.
If you believe you have the symptoms of hammertoes, it's important that you get it assessed as soon as possible. Click here to book an appointment to get it checked out.